Patient types of interest
KRYSTEXXA may be an appropriate treatment for your patients with chronic gout who have an sUA >6 mg/dL and whose signs and symptoms are inadequately controlled despite treatment with xanthine oxidase inhibitors at the maximum medically appropriate dose, including patients with co-morbid chronic kidney disease.3,31
The 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Guidelines recommend lowering sUA level to a minimum of <6 mg/dL. Moreover, the ACR recommends lowering the sUA level sufficiently to durably improve the signs and symptoms of gout, which may require a therapeutic sUA level of <5 mg/dL.23
Screen patients for G6PD* deficiency prior to starting KRYSTEXXA. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia have been reported with KRYSTEXXA in patients with G6PD deficiency. Do not administer KRYSTEXXA to these patients.
*KRYSTEXXA is contraindicated for patients with G6PD deficiency. G6PD deficiency is an abnormally low level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Patients of African, Mediterranean, and Southern Asian ancestry have a higher risk of G6PD deficiency.3
KRYSTEXXA CAN BE EFFECTIVE FOR CHRONIC GOUT PATIENTS WITH OR WITHOUT VISIBLE TOPHI3,31
The pivotal clinical trials of KRYSTEXXA included patients without visible tophi but with other signs and symptoms of gout.3
Individual presentation and results may vary, even in patients without sustained response.
Not all patients with uncontrolled gout have visible tophi
•30% of patients had no visible tophi in the pivotal clinical trial3
•All patients had failed to reach sUA <6 mg/dL despite >3 months of the maximum medically appropriate dose of allopurinol (or had a medical contraindication to allopurinol)31
KRYSTEXXA IS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE FOR CHRONIC GOUT PATIENTS WITH COMORBID CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE3,31
Pivotal clinical trials
Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from serum creatinine remains the clinical standard worldwide to determine renal function.32-35
Post hoc analysis
Patients with CKD can be effectively treated with KRYSTEXXA without dose adjustment3
•CKD patients experienced similar reductions in sUA levels compared with patients without CKD3,31
oThere was no difference in efficacy of KRYSTEXXA across CKD stages 1, 2, 3, and 4
•The safety profile of KRYSTEXXA was demonstrated to be the same in patients with or without CKD, and across all CKD stages3,31
•KRYSTEXXA did not affect the eGFR during the 25-week treatment period31
No dose adjustment is required for patients with renal impairment.
A phase 1 study (N=12) was conducted in non-gout patients with CKD stage 5 (end-stage renal disease, or ESRD) to evaluate the effect of hemodialysis on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of KRYSTEXXA36
This study showed no effect of hemodialysis on the safety or efficacy of KRYSTEXXA36
•CKD stage 5 (ESRD) patients are routinely excluded from clinical trials for gout and were also excluded from the KRYSTEXXA pivotal clinical trials2,36
•The results of a single injection indicated that36:
oReductions in sUA levels were similar to those achieved in the pivotal clinical trials
oKRYSTEXXA was not removed during dialysis treatment
oIn this study, KRYSTEXXA was well tolerated and there did not appear to be a change in the incidence, type, or severity of adverse events
- Baraf HS, Becker MA, Gutierrez-Urena SR, et al. Tophus burden reduction with pegloticase: results from phase 3 randomized trials and open-label extension in patients with chronic gout refractory to conventional therapy. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15(5):R137.
- Sundy JS, Baraf HS, Yood RA, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of pegloticase for the treatment of chronic gout in patients refractory to conventional treatment: two randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2011;306(7):711-720.
- KRYSTEXXA [prescribing information]. Horizon Pharma Rheumatology LLC. September 2016.
- Thiele RG, Schlesinger N. Diagnosis of gout by ultrasound. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46(7):1116-1121.
- Rees F, Hui M, Doherty M. Optimizing current treatment of gout. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2014;10(5):271-283.
- Naredo E, Uson J, Jiménez-Palop M, et al. Ultrasound-detected musculoskeletal urate crystal deposition: which joints and what findings should be assessed for diagnosing gout? Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73(8):1522-1528.
- Dalbeth N, House ME, Horne A, Taylor WJ. Reduced creatinine clearance is associated with early development of subcutaneous tophi in people with gout. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:363.
- Dalbeth N, Pool B, Gamble GD, et al. Cellular characterization of the gouty tophus: a quantitative analysis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62(5):1549-1556.
- Doghramji PP, Wortmann RL. Hyperuricemia and gout: new concepts in diagnosis and management. Postgrad Med. 2012;124(6):98-109.
- Bongartz T, Glazebrook KN, Kavros SJ, et al. Dual-energy CT for the diagnosis of gout: an accuracy and diagnostic yield study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74(6):1072-1077.
- Schett G, Schauer C, Hoffmann M, Hermann M. Why does the gout attack stop? A roadmap for the immune pathogenesis of gout. RMD Open. 2015;1:(suppl 1):e000046.
- Edwards NL. Gout A. Clinical features. In: Klippel JH, Stone JH, Crofford LJ, White PH, eds. Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases. 13th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2008:241-249.
- Edwards NL. Crystal-induced joint disease. In: Nabel EG. ACP Medicine: A Publication of the American College of Physicians. Hamilton, Ontario: Decker Intellectual Properties; 2012:1-16.
- Yu KH, Lien LC, Ho HH. Limited knee joint range of motion due to invisible gouty tophi. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004;43(2):191-194.
- Dalakas MC. Inflammatory muscle diseases. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1734-1747.
- Ianuzzi MC, Rybicki BA, Teirstein AS. Sarcoidosis. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:2153-2165.
- Parsad K, Rath D, Kundu BK. Arthritis Robustus: review of a case of an "abnormal" rheumatoid. Springerplus. 2014 Oct 16;3:606.
- Rada B. Neutrophil extracellular traps and microcrystals. J Immunol Res. 2017;2017:2896380.
- McQueen FM, Doyle A, Reeves Q, et al. Bone erosions in patients with chronic gouty arthropathy are associated with tophi but not bone oedema or synovitis: new insights from a 3 T MRI study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014;53(1):95-103.
- Choi HK, Al-Arfaj AM, Eftekhari A, et al. Dual energy computed tomography in tophaceous gout. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68(10):1609-1612.
- Park JJ, Roudier MP, Soman D, Mokadam NA, Simkin PA. Prevalence of birefringent crystals in cardiac and prostatic tissues, an observational study. BMJ Open. 2014;4(7):e005308.
- Popovich I, Dalbeth N, Doyle A, Reeves Q, McQueen FM. Exploring cartilage damage in gout using 3-TMRI: distribution and associations with joint inflammation and tophus deposition. Skeletal Radiol. 2014;43(7):917-924.
- Khanna D, Fitzgerald JD, Khanna PP, et al. 2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 1: systematic nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapeutic approaches to hyperuricemia. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012;64(10):1431-1446.
- Perez-Ruiz F. Treating to target: a strategy to cure gout. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48(suppl 2):ii9–ii14.
- Araujo EG, Bayat S, Petsch C, et al. Tophus resolution with pegloticase; a prospective dual-energy CT study. RMD Open. 2015;1(1):e000075.
- Schumacher HR, Becker MA, Wortmann RL, et al. Effects of febuxostat versus allopurinol and placebo in reducing serum urate in subjects with hyperuricemia and gout: a 28-week, phase III, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59(11):1540-1548.
- Data on file. Horizon Pharma Rheumatology LLC; 2016.
- Baraf HS, Yood RA, Ottery FD, Sundy JS, Becker MA. Infusion-related reactions with pegloticase, a recombinant uricase for the treatment of chronic gout refractory to conventional therapy. J Clin Rheumatol. 2014;20(8):427-432.
- McDonagh EM, Thorn CF, Callaghan JT, Altman RB, Klein TE. PharmGKB summary: uric acid-lowering drugs pathway, pharmacodynamics. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2014;24(9):464–476.
- Terkeltaub R, Bushinsky DA, Becker MA. Recent developments in our understanding of the renal basis of hyperuricemia and the development of novel antihyperuricemic therapeutics. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8(suppl 1):S4.
- Yood RA, Ottery FD, Irish W, Wolfson M. Effect of pegloticase on renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease: a post hoc subgroup analysis of 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trials. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:54.
- Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, et al. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130(6):461-470.
- Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al; CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) [published correction appears in Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(6):408]. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(9):604-612.
- Michels WM, Grootendorst DC, Verduijn M, et al. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5(6):1003-1009.
- Poggio ED, Wang X, Greene T, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16(2):459-466.
- Bleyer AJ, Wright D, Alcorn H. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pegloticase in patients with end-stage renal failure receiving hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol. 2015;83(5):286-292.